A large portion of the Protected Area National Park Mavrovo is covered by forest ecosystems, encompassing an area of 33,179.15 ha*, which is 45.82% of the total area of the Park. The analysis of the structure and covering of various forest types has shown that the broadleaved woodlands are dominant, encompassing 70.72% of the total area under forests, followed by mixed forests with 18.90%, scrublands with 9.37%, coniferous forests with 0.96%, and forest plantations with 0.05%.
The mountain ecosystems with 35,604 ha, or 49.17% occupy the largest area of the Park, developing on elevations from 1,800 to 2,764 m asl. The average annual air temperature in this belt ranges from 0°C to -4°C, while the average annual sum of precipitations is 1,250 mm. The aquatic ecosystems encompass an area of 1,704 ha, or 2.35% of the total area of the Park. The reservoir Mavrovsko Ezero Lake encompasses 75% of the total aquatic surface in the Park; 10.3% belong to the planned future reservoir Lukovo Pole; 1.1% to the planned future reservoir Boshkov Most; 13.1% of the aquatic surface is covered by the rivers and streams. Summarized, it is 99.5% of the total aquatic surface of the Park. The remainders 0.5% belong to aquatic surfaces covered by glacial lakes and temporary pools.
The vegetation of the National Park Mavrovo is represented by 41 plant communities, of which: 23 forest communities, three (3) meadow plant communities and 13 communities of high-mountain vegetation.
Forest ecosystems are represented by 25 forest communities, of which: four (4) coastal floodplain forest communities, 15 typical forest communities in the belt of oak and the belt of beech forests, and six (6) forest communities of coppice forests. Meadow plant communities within the territory of the Park are represented by three (3) plant communities, of which two (2) are lowland meadow plant communities and one (1) is mountain to subalpine meadow plant community. Almost 50% of the Park area (356 km2) is covered by high-mountain vegetation. The high-mountain vegetation is composed of 13 clearly defined plant communities. The plant species of high-mountain vegetation are represented by various floral elements, among which, the autochthonous tertiary floral elements are most significant.